Amasengesho mu buzima bwacu


Anyuranye 23/10/2017

Interuro

Mu Ivanjiri ya Luka (11, 1) umwe mu bigishwa be abwira Yezu ati “Mwigisha, natwe dutoze gusenga nk’uko Yohani yabigenjereje abigishwa be.

Koko rero, isengesho ni igikorwa cy’ingenzi mu buzima bwacu bwa gikirisitu, ni yo mpamvu tugomba kurigenera umwanya rikwiye, kandi tukareka Yezu Kristu akatubera umutoza mu gusenga Imana Data uko bikwiye. Ubusanzwe amasengesho y’umukristu anyuzwa kuri Yezu Kristu, na Roho Mutagatifu udufasha gusenga nka Yezu. Ariko hariho n’andi masengesho y’umwihariko nk’ayerekezwa kuri Bikira Mariya, n’ayerekezwa ku batagatifu batuvuganira imbere y’Imana Data.

Iyo witegereje usanga muri ibi bihe hariho uburyo bwinshi bwo gusenga, ndetse hariho n’uburyo butari busanzwe mu misengere y’abakirisitu. Ugasanga hari ubwo abakirisitu bibaza uburyo bukwiye bwo gusenga, dore ko mu mateka habayeho imisengere idatunganye yashoboraga kuyobya abantu mu kuyoboka Imana, cyangwa se ikabatera guta umwete wo gusenga. Kiliziya itwigisha uburyo butatu bwo gusenga: gusaba, kuzirikana no gushengerera.

Mu masengesho ni ngombwa kugira umurongo ngenderwaho

Muri ibi bihe tugezemo, abakristu benshi bafite inyota yo kumenya gusenga uko bikwiye, kandi ku buryo bwuzuye, kabone n’ubwo hariho ingorane nyinshi ziterwa n’uko imico y’abantu igezweho usanga itambamiye uburyo bwo gusenga mu ituze, mu mwiherero no mu kuzirikana. Kuba muri ibi bihe usanga abantu benshi, utaretse abakirisitu, bashishikarira uburyo bwo gusenga no kuzirikana by’amwe mu madini yo mu burasirazuba bw’isi, no gushaka kumenya umwihariko w’amasengesho y’ayo madini, ni ikimenyetso kigaragaza ko abantu bafite rwose inyota yo kwiherera basenga, hamwe n’inyota yo gushaka guhura n’Imana. Ibyo ari byo byose, ugendeye kuri ibyo, byaragaragaye ko ari ngombwa kugira umurongo ngenderwaho, ku bijyanye n’amahame ya Kiliziya ndetse n’ikenurabushyo mu bakristu, umurongo wafasha gutoza abantu gusenga, mu miterere yose y’amasengesho, tumurikiwe na Yezu uko yatwigishije, kandi hubahirijwe uruhererekane rwa Kiliziya.

Uburyo bwo gusenga budatunganye

Kuva mu ntangiriro z’ubukirisitu, muri Kiliziya hagiye hagaragara uburyo budatunganye bwo gusenga. Imwe mu mirongo ya y’Isezerano rishya ibikomozaho (reba 1 Yh 4, 3; 1 Tm 1, 3-7 na 4, 3-4). Iyo mirongo y’Isezerano Rishya igaragaza uburyo bubiri bw’ubuyobe: ubumenyi butari bwo (fausse gnose) no guhakana ko ineza ituruka ku Mana (messialianisme) byahangayikishije cyane Abashumba ba Kiliziya. Uhereye kuri izi ngorane abakirisitu bo mu ikubitiro baciyemo n’ukuntu Abashumba ba Kiliziya babyitwayemo, bishobora kutubera icyitegererezo cy’ingamba zafatwa mu guhangana n’ibibazo biriho muri iki gihe ku bijyanye n’isengesho.

Ku bijyanye n’ubumenyi bw’ikinyoma, Abashumba ba Kiliziya bemeza ko ibintu byose byaremwe n’Imana, ko ku bw’ibyo atari bibi. Ndetse bahamya ko ineza igira iteka isoko muri Roho Mutagatifu, ikaba impano y’ubuntu bw’Imana aho kuba indangamimerere y’umutima. Kumurikirwa na Roho Mutagatifu ntibituma ukwemera kw’Abakirisitu kuba amanjwe. Bityo rero, Abashumba ba Kiliziya basanga ubumenyi bw’ikirenga ari imbuto y’isengesho, bukaba urukundo rwa Kristu.

Kuvugurura uburyo bwo gusenga bigomba ubushishozi

Kuba muri ibi bihe tugezemo dukunze guhura n’andi madini anyuranye, akenshi usanga afite uburyo bwayo bwo gusenga butandukanye n’ubwacu, bituma abakirisitu benshi bibaza agaciro n’ingaruka ubwo buryo bundi bwo gusenga bwagira ku mibereho yabo. Iki kibazo kirareba mbere na mbere uburyo bw’imisengere y’amadini y’i burasirazuba. Hari abantu bamwe bifashisha ubwo buryo mu rwego rw’ubuvuzi: kubura ituze mu mutima, bitewe n’umuvuduko w’ubuzima muri ibi bihe ku isi harangwa iterambere ryihuse, bituma bamwe mu bakirisitu bashakishiriza amahoro y’umutima muri bene ayo masengesho. Hari n’abandi bakirisitu bumva ko uburyo basanganywe bwo gusenga bwagira inyungu mu kugira ibyo bigana ku misengere y’ayo madini yandi. Biragaragara ko bumwe mu buryo bw’imisengere y’abakirisitu bugenda bwibagirana, bityo bigatuma abakristu bibaza niba bidakwiye ko habaho ubundi buryo bwo gusenga, bakanibaza niba uburyo dusanganywe budakwiye kuvugururwa hongerwamo ubwo buryo bushya tutari dusanganywe.

Imihindagurikire y’uburyo bwo gusenga uko ibihe byagiye bisimburana

Imico n’imibereho y’abantu ahantu hatandukanye byagize ingaruka ku miterere y’isengesho, uko ibihe byagiye bisimburana. Mu ntangiriro y’ubukirisitu, uburyo bwo gusenga ku balayiki kimwe no ku bihayimana bwari ubwo guhera ku Ijambo ry’Imana. Isengesho ryari igisubizo ku Ijambo ry’Imana ryasomwe cyangwa ryumvishwe, nkuko abavandimwe bacu b’Abaporotesitanti babishimangira. Bitaga kuzirikana (meditatio) ibitekerezo ku byanditswe bitagatifu no gusaba (oratio) imigirire yose yaturuka ku byifuzo. Naho mu gushengerera (contemplatio), usenga yagezaga aho aba mu kiruhuko ari kumwe n’Imana. Kuzirikana utekereza, gusaba mu rukundo no gushengerera byashoboraga kuza bitunguranye, nta murongo ngenderwaho mu gihe kimwe cy’isengesho.

Guhera mu kinyejana cya 12, cyane cyane nyuma y’ikinyejana cya 16, igihe ku ruhande rumwe inkubiri y’ibitekerezo bya Rene Dekarite (Réné Descartes) yasakaraga muri rubanda, ku rundi ruhande Kiliziya yari ihanganye n’inyigisho za Miguel de Molinos n’iza Cornelius Jansen, isengesho ryakozwe ku buryo bwa gihanga, gusenga byuzuye bikaba gukora bya byiciro byose byavuzwe haruguru, buri cyiciro kigashyira ikindi : kumva ijambo ry’imana, ukarizirikana, ugasaba hanyuma ugashengerera. Ubu buryo bwo gusenga, nubwo bwashoboraga kuba bwiza mu ntangiriro, akenshi bwagiye bugeza usenga ku cyiciro cyo kuzirikana, agahama aho cyangwa akageza ku cyiciro cyo gusaba ariko ntatinyuke gushengerera abitewe no gutekereza ko ibyo byashobora bake b’intyoza mu isengesho. Byagejeje n’aho inyandiko za Mutagatifu Yohani w’Umusaraba, umuhanga w’isengesho risaba, zihagarikwa kugeza ku kinyejana cya 20, byaba ku balayiki, byaba ku bapadiri cyangwa ku bihayimana.

Muri ibi bihe, nyuma y’aho bakomoreye inyandiko za Mutagatifu Yohani w’Umusaraba hamwe n’abandi banditsi b’amasengesho bo hambere, na none ku bw’imizirikanire ikomoka i burasirazuba, isengesho ry’ishengerera nk’indunduro y’isengesho risanzwe, ryongeye kuba isengesho ry’abantu bose.

Isengesho ni ikiganiro gikomeye umuntu agirana n’Imana

Kugira ngo ugire icyo uvuga ku cyifuzo cyo kuvugurura uburyo bwo gusenga, ni ngombwa kubanza kumenya neza uburyo bwo gusenga bw’abakirisitu. Isengesho ry’abakirisitu rigengwa iteka n’imiterere y’ukwemera muri Kristu, ukwemera dukesha kumenya Imana n’ibyo yaremye. Niyo mpamvu isengesho ry’abakirisitu rigaragara nk’ikiganiro gikomeye umuntu agirana n’Imana. Isengesho ry’abakirisitu rigaragaza ubumwe buri hagati y’abantu bacunguwe hamwe n’Ubutatu Butagatifu. Muri ubwo bumwe bushingiye ku masakaramentu ya Batisimu n’Ukarisitiya, byo shingiro ry’imibereho ya Kiliziya, harangwa imyitwarire y’ihinduka, ugasohoka muri wowe ugasanga Imana. Bityo rero isengesho ry’abakirisitu ni iry’umuntu ku giti cye, cyane cyane igihe asenga ari wenyine, ariko na none rikaba irya Kiliziya, cyane cyane igihe asenga ari kumwe n’abandi, mu ngo, mu nama, mu makoraniro no muri Kiliziya. Isengesho ry’abakirisitu rinyuranye n’uburyo bwo gusenga bwatuma umuntu agwa mu bwikanyize, ubwikanyize bwamutera kwifungirana muri we, bukamubuza gusohoka muri we agana Imana. Muri Kiliziya, gushaka kuvugurura by’ukuri uburyo bwo gusenga wongeramo uburyo budasanzwe bigomba kubahiriza ihuriro ry’ubwigenge bubiri : ubwigenge butagira imipaka bw’Imana n’ubwigenge bucagase bwa muntu.

Ibyo Gatigisimu nshya ya Kiliziya itwigisha ku isengesho

Igihe cyo gusenga

Ibihe byose bibereye isengesho. Ariko hari ibihe by’ingenzi Kiliziya isaba abakirisitu kubahiriza mu masengesho yabo ku buryo buhoraho : amasengesho ya mu gitondo n’aya nimugoroba n’amasengesho yo mu bihe bitegekwa na Kiliziya, mbere na nyuma yo kurya, gutura Igitambo cy’Ukarisitiya ku cyumweru, kuvuga ishapure, guhimbaza iminsi mikuru yo mu mwaka wa liturijiya. [2697-2698, 2720]

Mutagatifu Geregori wa Naziyanze yaragize ati : “Tugomba kwibuka Imana inshuro nyinshi kurusha inshuro duhumeka.

Uburyo bwo gusenga

Uruhererekane rwa Kiliziya turukesha uburyo butatu bw’ingenzi bwo gusenga : gusaba, kuzirikana no gushengerera. Ubwo buryo uko ari butatu buhurira ku ituze ry’umutima. [2697-2699]

Isengesho ryo gusaba

Isengesho ryo gusaba rihuza umubiri n’isengesho ry’imbere mu mutima. Nta sengesho ry’imbere mu mutima kurusha ayandi ryakwirengagiza gusaba. Uko byagenda kose rigomba kugira isoko m’ukwemera umuntu afite. Muri “Dawe uri mu ijuru, Yezu yatwigishije isengesho risesuye ryo gusaba. [2700-2704, 2722]

Isengesho ryo kuzirikana

Kuzirikana ni ugusenga utekereza, uhereye ku Ijambo ry’Imana ryo muri Bibiliya Ntagatifu. Iryo sengesho rikomatanyiriza hamwe ubwenge, igitekerezo, imvamutima, icyifuzo hagamijwe gucengera cyane ukwemera, guhinduka mu mutima no guhamya ubushake bwo gukurikira Kirisitu. Iri sengesho ni icyiciro kibanziriza kunga ubumwe mu rukundo na Nyagasani. [2705-2708, 2723]

Isengesho ryo gushengerera

Isengesho ryo gushengerera ni uguceceka, mu rukundo ukareba Imana. Ni impano y’Imana, ni igihe cy’ukwemera gukeye, igihe umuntu usenga ashakisha Kirisitu, akiyegurira ugushaka kw’urukundo rw’Imana Data, kandi akareka Roho Mutagatifu akamukoreramo. Mutagatifu Tereza wa Avila abisobanura agira ati : “ni ubucuruzi bw’urukundo mu mutima, aho umuntu ku giti cye aciririkanya n’Imana yumva imukunze. [2709-2719, 2724, 2739-2741]

Urugamba rw’isengesho

Kuki isengesho ari urugamba?

Isengesho ni impano y’ubuntu, ariko risaba iteka igisubizo cyacu kugira ngo twakire iyo mpano, kuko usenga aba ari ku rugamba ahanganye na we ubwe, ahanganye n’imyumvire y’abamukikije, ariko cyane cyane ahanganye n’Umushukanyi ukora ibishoboka byose ngo amurangaze mu isengesho. Urugamba rw’isengesho ntiwarutandukanya n’imibereho ya roho. Umuntu asenga uko ariho, kuko umuntu abaho uko asenga. [2725]

Inkomyi z'isengesho

Uretse imyumvire ikocamye, benshi batekereza ko nta gihe bafite cyo gusenga cyangwa ko nta mpamvu y’isengesho. Abasenga bashobora gucika intege, igihe bari mu magorwa n’igihe batsindwa bigaragara. Kugira ngo ubashe kurenga izo mbogamizi, ni ngombwa kugira ubwiyoroshye, icyizere n’ubutaretsa. [2726-2728, 2752-2753]

Ingorane z’isengesho

Uburangare ni yo ngorane ya mbere dukunze guhura na yo mu isengesho. Uburangare butubuza kurangamira Imana, ndetse bushobora no kuduhishurira ibyo turarikiye. Umutima wacu ugomba rero kurangamira Nyagasani mu bwiyoroshye. Isengesho na none rikunze kwibasirwa n’ubwumirane (sécheresse), iyo umuntu abashije kuburenga, yegukira Imana, kabone n’ubwo nta gihembo abitegerejemo. Ukubihirwa ni ubundi buryo bwo kurangara mu mutima buterwa no kureka kuba maso n’ubute bw’umutima. [2729-2733, 2754-2755]

Uko twakomeza icyizere

Kwiringira Imana biragora igihe twiyumvamo ko ibyo dusaba iteka ryose tutabihabwa. Tugomba rero kwibaza niba Imana ari Umubyeyi wacu dushaka gukoresha icyo twifuza, cyangwa niba ari uburyo bwo kubona icyo dushaka. Niba isengesho ryacu turyunze mu rya Yezu, tuzi ko atugenera byinshi kurusha impano iyo ari yo yose : tumukesha Roho Mutagatifu uhindura imitima yacu. [2734-2741, 2756]

Gusenga birashoboka igihe cyose

Gusenga igihe cyose birashoboka, kuko igihe cy’umukirisitu ari igihe cya Kristu wazutse, “Kristu uri kumwe natwe igihe cyose (Mt 28, 20). Isengesho n’ubuzima bw’umukirisitu ntibishobora gutandukanywa. Mutagatifu Yohani Kirizositomo yaragize ati : “birashoboka, byaba mu isoko cyangwa mu busitani witemberera, gukora isengesho ryiza, kandi rikomeye. Wicaye aho ucururiza mu iduka, ugurisha cyangwa uhaha, cyangwa wibereye mu gikoni utetse. [2742-2745, 2757]

Isengesho ry’igihe cya Yezu

Isengesho ry’igihe cya Yezu ni isengesho rya gisaseridoti Yezu yakoze igihe cy’Isangira ritagatifu araye ari budupfire. Yezu, Umusaseridoti Mukuru w’Isezerano Rishya, yubura amaso ayerekeza ku ijuru ati “Dawe igihe kirageze, igihe cyo “gusubira ku Mana Data, “igihe cyo kwituraho igitambo. [2604, 2746-2751, 2758]

Umwanzuro

Muri ibi bihe tugezemo, uretse uburyo bwo gusenga Kiliziya idutoza, hari ababona ko uburyo bushya bwo gusenga bwababera umuti w’ibibazo bafite mu mibereho ya Roho, ndetse bakanabibonamo uburyo bwihuse bwo kugera ku Mana. Bigatuma bumva ko hari imwe mu migenzereze y’ibirasirazuba yacengezwa mu masengesho y’Abakirisitu. Uko byagenda kose, guhuza isengesho ry’abakirisitu n’imwe mu migenzo y’iburasirazuba bigomba ubushishozi buhambaye, kandi buhoraho, kugira ngo hagenzurwe neza icyo byakungura ubukristu n’uburyo bunoze byakorwamo Abakirisitu batagombye gutakaza uburyo bwo gusenga barazwe na Yezu Kristu.

 

Robert MAKUTA

 


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